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标题: [转载]Of Beauty By Francis Bacon徐英才 译 上一主题 | 下一主题
Xiaoman

#1  [转载]Of Beauty By Francis Bacon徐英才 译

已贴Facebook。放这里方便大家阅读,稍后我有一些问题请教老师。

Of Beauty

Francis Bacon

(1561-1626)
  
VIRTUE is like a rich stone, best plain set; and surely virtue is best, in a body that is comely, though not of delicate features; and that hath rather dignity of presence, than beauty of aspect4. Neither is it almost seen, that very beautiful persons are otherwise of great virtue; as if nature were rather busy, not to err, than in labor to produce excellency. And therefore they prove accomplished, but not of great spirit; and study rather behavior, than virtue.
  
But this holds not always: for Augustus Caesar, Titus Vespasianus, Philip le Belle of France, Edward the Fourth of England, Alcibiades of Athens, Ismael the Sophy of Persia, were all high and great spirits; and yet the most beautiful men of their times. In beauty, that of favor, is more than that of color; and that of decent and gracious motion, more than that of favor. That is the best part of beauty, which a picture cannot express; no, nor the first sight of the life.
  
There is no excellent beauty, that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. A man cannot tell whether Apelles, or Albert Durer, were the more trifler; whereof the one, would make a personage by geometrical proportions; the other, by taking the best parts out of divers faces, to make one excellent. Such personages, I think, would please nobody, but the painter that made them. Not but I think a painter may make a better face than ever was; but he must do it by a kind of felicity (as a musician that maketh an excellent air in music), and not by rule.
  
A man shall see faces, that if you examine them part by part, you shall find never a good; and yet altogether do well. If it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion, certainly it is no marvel, though persons in years seem many times more amiable; pulchrorum autumnus pulcher; for no youth can be comely but by pardon, and considering the youth, as to make up the comeliness.
  
Beauty is as summer fruits, which are easy to corrupt, and cannot last; and for the most part it makes a dissolute youth, and an age a little out of countenance; but yet certainly again, if it light well, it maketh virtue shine, and vices blush.
  
  
论美貌

弗朗西斯•培根

徐英才 译

美德如宝石。宝石者,非素雅之镶嵌不能尽显其光彩。故尽显美德之光彩者,俊雅而非娇艳也、端庄而非仅仅美艳之身躯也。然,大美之人中鲜见美德者,仿佛造化忙不择优,为求无过而舍求至美。此何为美人虽有相貌但乏品性,重外表而轻美德也。

然,此非恒理,奥古斯都•凯撒大帝、提图斯•威斯帕咸努斯大帝、法王菲利普、英王爱德华四世、雅典人阿尔西巴阿底斯、波斯王伊斯迈耳皆属其时代品性高尚且相貌极美之人。就美而言,自然优于打扮,端庄、优雅胜于自然。此系美中极品,非绘画所能表达,非一目而能了然。

大美者,其骨骼比例自有某些特征。阿佩利斯与艾伯特•丢勒一样荒唐,此二者,一人按几何比例、一人取数人面部最佳部位绘极品之美像。而吾以为,此法造像,除画工本人,无人垂爱。此非意指画工无法画出前所未有之好像;而仅指,画工作画不能循规蹈矩,而必须巧思妙创(恰似乐工创作美音那样)。

容貌,分而察之,难以悦目;合而观之,却能赏心。若美貌实出于端庄,温文尔雅之气质随年岁倍增则不足为奇。谚曰:“美哉,金秋!”故,若非仗其青春优势,若非观者宽心以待,青年无俊者。

美貌似夏日之鲜果,易腐,难存;美貌常使青春放浪,老年出格。当然,无须重申,如其辉映美德,必使其增色;如其光照恶行,定使其愧疚。



使君才气卷波澜。与把好诗再译
2016-3-10 16:32
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Xiaoman

#2  

多谢老师解答我的疑问。学习了~

今天我学习的是你翻译的The Original Way   原道  韩愈  【英译唐宋八大家散文精选】

第  1 幅


2016-3-15 22:22
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Xiaoman

#3  

刚刚学习了【临江之麋】发觉Young dear 应是Young deer

学习点:so in this way ...but for this very reason 上下文引领
及带出内在联系的译法: the fawn was allowed to go out 而不是 the fawn went out


2016-3-16 08:17
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Xiaoman

#4  

译文流畅,地道。我还学习了翻译技术。

有朋友指出不是Dear是Deer。我说也不是Deer,是马。

(补充:电脑的错。)

下一篇:捕蛇者说


2016-3-17 15:02
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Xiaoman

#5  

作品原文

编辑

永州1之2野3产4异5蛇,黑质而白章6,触7草木,尽8死;以啮9人,无御10之11者。然12得而腊之13以为饵14,可以15已大风、挛踠、瘘、疠16,去死肌17,杀三虫18。其始19太医以王命聚之20,岁赋其二21;募22有能捕之者23,当其租入24。永之人争奔走25焉26。

有蒋氏者,专其利27三世矣。问之,则28曰:“吾祖死于是29,吾父死于是,今30吾嗣31为之32十二年,几33死者34数35矣。”言之36,貌若甚戚者37。

余悲之38,且39曰:“若毒之乎40?余将41告于42莅事者43,更若役44,复若赋45,则何如46?”

蒋氏大47戚,汪然48出涕49曰:“君将哀而生之50乎?则吾斯51役之不幸,未若52复吾赋不幸之甚53也。向54吾不为55斯役,则久已病56矣。自57吾氏三世居58是乡,积于今59六十岁矣。而乡邻之生60日61蹙62,殚63其地之出,竭64其庐65之入。号呼而转徙66,饥渴而顿踣67。触风雨,犯68寒暑,呼嘘毒疠69,往往而死者相藉70也。曩71与吾祖居者,今其室72十无一焉。与吾父居者,今其室十无二三焉。与吾居十二年者,今其室十无四五焉。非死则徙尔73。而吾以捕蛇独存。悍吏之来吾乡,叫嚣74乎东西,隳突75乎南北;哗然而骇76者,虽77鸡狗不得宁焉。吾恂恂78而起,视其缶79,而吾蛇独存,则弛然80而卧。谨食之81,时82而献焉。退83而甘84食其土之有85,以尽吾齿86。盖87一岁之犯88死者二焉,其余则熙熙89而乐,岂若吾乡邻之旦旦90有是哉91。今虽死乎此,比吾乡邻之死则已后矣,又安敢毒耶92?”

余闻而愈悲,孔子曰:“苛93政猛于94虎也!”吾尝疑乎95是,今以蒋氏观之,犹信。呜呼!孰知赋敛之毒有甚是蛇者乎!故96为之说,以97俟98夫观人风99者得焉。[1-2]  [3]  [4]  

   


注释译文

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词句注释

1、永州:位于湖南省西南部,湘江经西向东穿越零祁盆地(永祁盆地),潇水由南至北纵贯全境;两水汇于永州市区(零冷城区)。

2、之:结构助词的。

3、野:郊外。

4、产:出产。

5、异:奇特的。

6、黑质而白章:黑底子,白花纹。质:原指质地,在这里指蛇的身体,花纹的衬托面。章,花纹。

7、触:碰。

8、尽:全。

9、以:假设连词,如果。啮(niè):用牙咬。

10、御:抵挡。

11、之:指被毒蛇咬后的伤毒。

12、然:然而,但是,表黑白。

13、得而腊(xī)之:抓到并把它的肉晾干。得,抓住。而,表顺接。之,它,代永州的异蛇。腊:干肉,这里作动词用,指把蛇肉晾干。

14、以为饵:以,用来。为,作为。饵,糕饼,这里指药饵,即药引子 。

15、可以:可以用来。可,可以。以,用来。

16、已:止,治愈。大风:麻疯。挛踠(luánwǎn):手脚拳曲。瘘(lòu):脖肿。疠(lì):毒疮、恶疮。

17、去死肌:去除腐肉。去,去除。死肌,死肉,腐肉。

18、三虫:泛指人体内的寄生虫。

19、其始:其,助词,不译。始:刚开始。

20、太医以王命聚之:以,用。命:命令。聚,征集。之:这种蛇,指永州异蛇。

21、岁赋其二:岁,每年。赋,征收、敛取。其,这种蛇,指永州异蛇。二,两次

22、募:招收。

23、者:……的人。

24、当其租入:(允许用蛇)抵他的税赋。当,抵。

25、奔走:指忙着做某件事。

26、焉:兼词,于之,在捕蛇这件事上。也可理解为语气词兼代词。

27、专其利:独占这种(捕蛇而不用交税的)好处。

28、则:却。

29、死于是:死在(捕蛇)这件事上。是,代词,这件事。

30、今:现在。

31、嗣:继承。

32、为之:做捕蛇这件事。

33、几(jī):几乎,差点儿。。

34、几死者:几乎死掉的情况。

35、数(shuò):屡次,多次。

36、言之:之,音节助词,无实义。

37、貌若甚戚者:表情好像非常忧伤的样子。戚,忧伤。

38、余悲之:我同情他。

39、且:并且。

40、若毒之乎:你怨恨(捕蛇)这件事吗。

41、将:打算。

42、于:向。

43、莅事者:管理政事的人,指地方官。

44、更(gēng)若役:更换你的差事。役:给官府做劳力。

45、复:恢复。赋:赋税。

46、则何如:那么怎么样。何如,即“如何”。

47、大:非常。

48、汪然:满眼含泪的样子。

49、涕:眼泪。

50、生:使……活下去。之,代词,我。

51、斯:此,这。

52、若:比得上。

53、甚:那么。

54、向:从前。

55、为:做。

56、病:困苦不堪。

57、自:自从。

58、居:居住。

59、积于今:算到现在。积,一年一年累积起来。

60、生:生活。

61、日:一天天。

62、蹙(cù):窘迫。

63、殚(dān):尽,竭尽。

64、竭:尽。

65、庐:简陋的房屋。

66、徙:迁移。

67、顿踣(bó):(劳累地)跌倒在地上。

68、犯:冒。

69、疠:这里指疫气。

70、藉(jiè):枕、垫。死者相藉,形容尸体互相压着。

71、曩(nǎng) :从前。

72、其室:他们的家。

73、非…则…:不是…就是…。尔:用于句尾,表示限制的语气。

74、嚣:叫喊。

75、隳(huī)突:骚扰。

76、骇:使人害怕。

77、虽:即使。

78、恂恂(xúnxún):小心谨慎的样子;提心吊胆的样子。

79、缶(fǒu):瓦罐。

80、弛然:放心的样子。

81、食(sì):喂养、饲养。之:指代蛇。

82、时:到(规定献蛇的)时候。

83、退:回来。

84、甘:有味地。

85、有:生产出来的东西。

86、齿:年龄。

87、盖:用于句首,带有估计的语气。

88、犯:冒着。

89、熙熙:快乐的样子。

90、旦旦:天天。

91、是:这,指冒死亡的危险。哉:语气助词,表感叹语气。

92、耶:语气助词,表反问语气。

93、苛:苛刻。

94、于:比。

95、乎:相当“于”,对。

96、故:所以。

97、以:用来。

98、俟(sì):等待。

99、人风:即民风。唐代为了避李世民的讳,用“人”字代“民”字。[1-2]  [3]  

   


白话译文

永州的野外出产一种奇异的蛇,(它)黑色的质地白色的花纹;这种蛇碰到的草木全都干枯而死;如果蛇咬了人,没有能够抵挡蛇毒的办法。然而捉到后把它晾干用来做成药饵,可以用来治愈麻疯、手脚拳曲、脖肿、恶疮,去除坏死的肌肉,杀死人体内的寄生虫。起初,太医用皇帝的命令征集这种蛇,每年征收这种蛇两次,招募有能力捕捉这种蛇的人,抵他的赋税。永州的人都争着去做(捕蛇)这件事。


有个姓蒋的人家,享有这种(捕蛇而不纳税的)好处三代了。我问他,他却说:“我的祖父死在捕蛇这件差事上,我父亲也死在这件事情上。现在我继承祖业干这差事也已十二年了,险些丧命也有好几次了。”他说这番话时,神情像是很悲伤。

我很同情他,就说:“你怨恨这差事吗?我将要告诉管理政事的人,让他更换你的差事,恢复你的赋税,那么怎么样?”

蒋氏(听了),更加悲伤,满眼含泪地说:“您是哀怜(我),使我活下去吗?我这差事的不幸,还不如恢复我赋税遭受的不幸那么厉害呀。如果从前我不干这差事,那我早已困苦不堪了。

自从我家三代住到这个地方,累计到现在,已经六十年了,可乡邻们的生活一天天地窘迫,把他们土地上生产出来的都拿去,把他们家里的收入也尽数拿去(交租税仍不够),只得号啕痛哭辗转逃亡,又饥又渴倒在地上,(一路上)顶着狂风暴雨,冒着严寒酷暑,呼吸着带毒的疫气,一个接一个死去,常死人互相压着。从前和我祖父同住在这里的,现在十户当中剩不下一户了;和我父亲住在一起的人家,现在十户当中只有不到两三户了;和我一起住了十二年的人家,现在十户当中只有不到四五户了。那些人家不是死了就是迁走了。可是我却由于捕蛇这个差事才活了下来。凶暴的官吏来到我乡,到处吵嚷叫嚣,到处骚扰,那种喧闹的样子惊扰了乡间的平静,即使是鸡狗也不得安宁呢!我就小心翼翼地起来,看看我的瓦罐,我的蛇还在,就放心地躺下了。我小心地喂养蛇,到规定的日子把它献上去。回家后有滋有味地吃着田地里出产的东西,来度过我的余年。估计一年当中冒死的情况只是两次,其余时间我都可以快快乐乐地过日子。哪像我的乡邻们天天都在危险之中呢!现在我即使死在这差事上,比起我的乡邻就已经死在(他们)后面了,又怎么敢怨恨(捕蛇这件事)呢?”

我听了(蒋氏的诉说)越听越悲伤。孔子说:“严苛的政治比老虎还要凶猛啊!”我曾经怀疑过这句话,现在从蒋氏的遭遇来看,还真是可信的。唉!谁知道搜刮老百姓的毒害有比这种毒蛇更厉害呢!所以写了这篇文章,以期待那些(朝廷派遣的)考察民情的人从这里得到它。[1-2]  [3]  

   


创作背景

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柳宗元所处的时代,是唐王朝由盛到衰的历史转折时期。公元755年安禄山之乱后,中央政权与藩镇不断巩固自己的势力,对人民加重赋税。史书记载:中唐赋多而重,除法定的夏、秋两税外,加征种种苛税。繁重的苛捐杂税,使劳动人民苦不堪言,如再遇天灾,无疑雪上加霜,他们纷纷逃亡、流浪,以至十室九空。

柳宗元在唐顺宗时期,参与了以王叔文为首的永贞革新运动。因反对派的强烈反抗,革新运动一百四十多天后失败,顺宗退位,王叔文被杀,柳宗元贬为永州司马。在永州的十年期间,柳宗元大量地接触下层,目睹当地人民“非死则徙尔”的悲惨景象,感到有责任用自己的笔来反映横征暴敛导致民不聊生的社会现实,希望最高统治者能借此体察民情,推行善政。柳宗元看到“永州之野产异蛇”,听到有蒋氏者“专其利有三世”的事例,他以进步的思想和身边的素材构思了这篇《捕蛇者说》,以“贬时弊与抒孤愤”。[5]  [6]  

   


艺术鉴赏

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揭露现实

《捕蛇者说》揭露了当时“赋敛之毒有甚于蛇毒”的社会现实。文章由异蛇引出异事,由异事导出异理,即由蛇、征蛇、捕蛇、捕蛇人、捕蛇者说依次刻画描写,以蛇毒与赋敛之毒相对举而成文。叙事开篇,因事而感,因感而议。全文先事后理、因前果后,处处设比,文风委婉曲折,波澜纵横,脉络清晰,层层递进。

内容索引

内容结构上,作者以“蛇”为线索,步步深入地展开文字。全文以蛇开篇,至蛇收束,其中按照产蛇、募蛇、捕蛇,到捕蛇者、捕蛇者说的顺序步步递进,最后得出结论。虽然题为“捕蛇者说”,却不径从蒋氏叙起,而从“永州之野产异蛇”下笔。

笔锋奇异

写蛇,饰之以“异”,使人醒目动心,便于为下文决口导流。写蛇之“异”,由外及内,从形到质。写性之异,一为有剧毒:“触草木,尽死;以啮人,无御之者”。“尽死” 、“无御”极言蛇毒之烈。一为大利:可以去毒疗疮治病。

写性异,分出相对立的大毒大利两支,再以“赋”将这两支纽结起来。因有大利,才会造成“太医以王命聚之”。蛇能治病,为医家所重,为太医所重,更见其功效之大。正因为被皇家的医官重视,才会“以王命聚之” 。“王命聚之”,不仅说明蛇有大用,也反映了蛇有剧毒,一般地求之不得,买之不能,非以最高权力的“王命”不可。

可是,虽令出于帝王,也不过“岁赋其二”,仍然不容易得到,这更显示了人们害怕毒蛇的程度。正因为皇家既要蛇,又不易得到蛇,才迫使官府采取“当其租入”的办法。

租,是王室赖以活命之本;蛇,乃王室借以保命之物。纳租,属于王事;征蛇,出于王命。由于蛇和租在王家的利益上一致,这才出现了“ 当其租入”的措施,将两种本来毫不相关的事物联结起来。这一联结,也就为永州人冒死捕蛇埋上了伏线,为将蛇毒与赋毒比较立下了伏笔。

写作艺术

由异蛇引出异事,由异事导出异理——由蛇写到捕蛇,由捕蛇者写到捕蛇者说,先事后理,因前果后,脉络清晰,层层递进。作者以“蛇毒”为陪衬,通过反复对比揭示主题。

作者在艺术手法上善用衬托与对比以突出重点;表达方式以叙事为主,辅以议论点明中心,以抒情强化感染力。

写作梗概

第一部分即是第一自然段,重点突出了永州之蛇的特点。

开头至“无御之者”,极力刻画出蛇的毒性异常,令人闻之色变。接下来至“杀三虫”写出了蛇的功用异常。而这也是造成永州捕蛇者命运悲剧的重要原因:封建统治者征集异蛇,每年征收两次,可以抵消应缴纳的租税。作者仅用“争奔走”三个字,就写出了永州百姓争先恐后、冒死捕蛇的情形。百姓惧怕原因即繁重的赋役。文章开篇即写毒蛇之害以衬托重赋苛政之害。捕蛇以抵赋,蒋氏之祖、父死在这上头,而蒋氏却甘愿干此差事,衬托出“赋敛之毒有甚于蛇毒”。

第二部分从“有蒋氏者”到“又安敢毒邪”,是写捕蛇者自述悲惨遭遇,笔法曲折。是全文的重心。

先说蒋氏“专其利三世矣”,但这是以他祖父、父亲的死于非命和自己的九死一生为代价的,不能不说是一大讽刺。既然这样,好心的作者准备帮他解决困境。出人意料的是,蒋氏“大戚”,并“汪然出涕”,开始了沉痛的陈述。蒋氏的这番话大致有以下几层意思:一是恢复他的赋役将会使他遭遇更大的不幸;二是蒋氏祖孙三代在这个地方居住长达六十年,亲眼看到同村的人因为缴纳赋税,背井离乡乃至十室九空,而只有自己因为捕蛇才得以侥幸生存下来;三是凶暴的官吏到乡下催租逼税时飞扬跋扈,到处叫嚣,到处骚扰,弄得鸡犬不宁;四是说自己愿意一年当中冒两次生命危险去换取其余时间的安乐。

第三部分即文章结尾段,是议论和抒情的完美结合。作者听完蒋氏的话后,深受震动。引用孔子的话可谓恰到好处,由“苛政猛于虎”类推出“孰知赋敛之毒有甚于蛇毒乎”这一结论,并且用“蛇毒”衬托“赋毒”。“故为之说,以俟乎观人风者得焉”则是作者写作此文的根本目的。从中可看出作者的无奈:自己如今位卑权轻,无能为力,只有寄希望于那些视察民风的封建官员。卒章显志的同时也增强了文章情感上的感染力,读来令人倍感愤懑。[5]  [8]  

蒋氏的这番话,继续运用对比的手法:以他“以捕蛇独存”和乡亲们“非死则徙”相对比;以他“弛然而卧”和乡亲们的惊恐相对比;以他“一岁之犯死者二”和乡邻“旦旦有是”相对比,说明捕蛇之不幸,确实“未若复吾赋不幸之甚也”。

文章从多角度进行对比,从各层面揭示了严重的社会问题。死亡与生存的对比:文章以其乡邻60年来由于苛赋之迫而“非死则徙”的遭遇与蒋氏“以捕蛇独存”的状况作对比,触目惊心地表明“赋敛之毒有甚于蛇毒”。乡邻的痛苦是“旦旦有是”;而蒋氏“一岁之犯死者二焉”。诸多对比有力地突出了文章主题。

   


名家点评

编辑

澳门科技大学人文艺术学院院长余秋雨

他在永州呆了10年,日子过得孤寂而荒凉。亲族朋友不来理睬,地方官员时时监视。灾难使他十分狼狈,一度蓬头垢面,丧魂落魄。但是,灾难也给了他一份宁静,使他有足够的时间与自然相晤,与自我对话。于是,他进入了最佳写作状态,中国文化史拥有了《永州八记》和其他篇什,华夏文学又一次凝聚出了高峰性的构建。[9]  

北宋文学家苏轼

所贵乎枯谈者,谓其外枯而中膏,似淡而实美,渊明、子厚之流是也。[10]  

唐代文学家韩愈

子厚前时少年,勇于为人,不自贵重顾藉,谓功业可立就,故坐废退。既退,又无相知有气力得位者推挽,故卒死于穷裔,材不为世用,道不行于时也。使子厚在台省时,自持其身已能如司马刺史时,亦自不斥;斥时有人力能举之,且必复用不穷。然子厚斥不久,穷不极,虽有出于人,其文学辞章,必不能自力,以致必传于后如今,无疑也。虽使子厚得所愿,为将相于一时,以彼易此,孰得孰失,必有能辨之者。[11]  

   


作者简介

编辑


柳宗元(773年—819年),字子厚,山西运城人,世称“柳河东” “河东先生”。因官终柳州刺史,又称“柳柳州”“柳愚溪”,汉族,祖籍河东(今山西省.永济市运城、芮城一带)。 唐代文学家、哲学家、散文家和思想家,与韩愈共同倡导唐代古文运动,并称为“韩柳”。与刘禹锡并称“刘柳”。与王维、孟浩然、韦应物并称“王孟韦柳”。与唐代的韩愈、宋代的欧阳修、苏洵、苏轼、苏辙、王安石和曾巩, 并称为 “唐宋八大家”(柳宗元为唐宋八大家之二) 。


柳宗元于唐代宗大历八年(773年)出生于京都长安(今陕西省西安市)。出身于 官宦家庭,少有才名,早有大志。早年为考进士,文以辞采华丽为工。贞元九年(793)中进士,十四年登博学鸿词科,授集贤殿正字。一度为蓝田尉,后入朝为官,积极参与王叔文集团政治革新,迁礼部员外郎。永贞元年(805)九月,革新失败,贬邵州刺史,十一月柳宗元加贬永州司马(任所在今湖南省永州市零陵区),在此期间,写下了著名的《永州八记》(《始得西山宴游记》《钴鉧潭记》《钴鉧潭西小丘记》《小石潭记》《袁家渴记》《石渠记》《石涧记》《小石城山记》)。元和十年(815)春回京师,不久再次被贬为柳州刺史。宪宗元和十四年十一月初八(819年11月28日)卒于柳州任所。交往甚蕃,刘禹锡、白居易等都是他的好友。

柳宗元一生留诗文作品达600余篇,其文的成就大于诗。其诗多抒写抑郁悲愤、思乡怀友之情,幽峭峻郁,自成一路。最为世人称道者,是那些清深意远、疏淡峻洁的山水闲适之作。骈文有近百篇,散文论说性强,笔锋犀利,讽刺辛辣。游记写景状物,多所寄托。[2]  [6]


2016-3-18 05:52
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Xiaoman

#6  

古代散文,诗词英译,阳春白雪者,曲高和寡。因此余之Facebook跟贴者寥寥无几。近日喜见澳州萧华兄长篇英译中颇有成就:https://www.facebook.com/hoa.tieu.946/posts/1806772812884109


2016-3-18 06:36
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Xiaoman

#7  

越华诗人,作家,翻译家谢振煜先生评论了徐老师的翻译"临江之麋“

转贴放在: https://www.facebook.com/romina.liu.1


2016-3-18 12:17
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Xiaoman

#8  



2016-3-18 12:54
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Xiaoman

#9  

deleted


2016-3-18 13:04
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#10  

Good point. Anyone would like to rectify this?


2016-3-18 14:06
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Xiaoman

#11  

DEleted


2016-3-18 15:48
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Xiaoman

#12  

讨论在这里:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/ ... group_comment_reply

原文“麋麑稍大,忘己之麋也”---意思是小鹿慢慢长大,但它忘了自己是一只鹿, 这句重点说它不是其他什么,而是一只鹿. 强调它忘记了自己是一只鹿.
徐教授翻译“ the fawn grew up, but for this very reason, it forgot what it really was and was..." 正是原文要表达的意思。the fawn grew up就已经表明它长大了. 文学翻译不能word for word (逐字) 地译 word for word 翻译适宜商业翻译--譬如不能少一个零或多一个零, 文学翻译讲求准确,传神,用词表达要把画外音,内在联系译出。 譬如译文中It was allowed to go out 而不是it went out.

我查了字典,麋,以下是解释,说是比牛大。 (比牛大,比大象大都不是重点,原文作者用意强调它是鹿,不是狗或猫或其他什么 )

麋 基本字义

● 麋

mí ㄇㄧˊ

 ◎ 〔~鹿〕哺乳动物,比牛大,毛淡褐色,雄的有角,角像鹿,尾像驴,蹄像牛,颈像骆驼,但从整体看哪种动物都不像,原产中国,是一种珍贵的稀有兽类。俗称“四不像”。


2016-3-19 06:58
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#13  

出几道选择题给小曼做

1. 请选出下面你认为最合理的答案。

A. 几只野狗吃了一只小鹿。
B. 几只野狗吃了一只成年鹿。
C. 几只野狗吃了一只壮年鹿。
D. 上面都不对。

2. 请选出下面你认为最合理的答案。

   从前有一个小孩,生下来就会做诗,十几年后,_____ 参加了一次诗歌比赛,获得了第一名。

A. 这个小孩
B. 这个少年
C. 这个青年
D. 这个壮年

3. 请选出下面你认为最合理的答案。

   从前有一只小鹿,生下来就会跳舞,三年后,_____ 参加了一个跳舞比赛,获得了第一名。

A. 这个小鹿
B. 这个成年鹿
C. 这个壮年鹿
D. 上面都不对


2016-3-19 16:08
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Xiaoman

#14  

A,A,A


2016-3-19 17:11
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Xiaoman

#15  

第二,三,选其他都是唐突的,因为前头说的是小孩,小鹿。就算几十年后,叙述上还是说小孩,小鹿。

举例子,....那个小孩在几十年后成了一个伟大的翻译家,哈哈哈:)


2016-3-19 17:22
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#16  



引用:
Originally posted by Xiaoman at 2016-3-19 17:22:
第二,三,选其他都是唐突的,因为前头说的是小孩,小鹿。就算几十年后,叙述上还是说小孩,小鹿。

举例子,....那个小孩在几十年后成了一个伟大的翻译家,哈哈哈:)

满分。这就是为什么要用fawn一词的理由。


2016-3-19 17:34
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Xiaoman

#17  

谢谢老师提醒。


url]https://www.facebook.com/groups/849562308469681/permalink/1020725564686687/?comment_id=1021926254566618¬if_t=group_comment_reply[/url]


2016-3-19 18:05
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Xiaoman

#18  



2016-3-20 07:17
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Xiaoman

#19  



2016-3-20 22:56
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Xiaoman

#20  

Of Gardens  论花园   作者:培根

God Almighty planted a garden. And indeed it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man; without which, buildings and palaces are but gross handiworks; and a man shall ever see, that when ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build stately sooner than to garden finely; as if gardening were the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be gardens, for all the months in the year; in which severally things of beauty may be then in season. For December, and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter: holly; ivy; bays; juniper; cypress-trees; yew; pine-apple-trees; fir-trees; rosemary; lavender; periwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue; germander; flags; orange-trees; lemon-trees; and myrtles, if they be stoved; and sweet marjoram, warm set. There followeth, for the latter part of January and February, the mezereon-tree, which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and the grey; primroses; anemones; the early tulippa; hyacinthus orientalis; chamairis; fritellaria. For March, there come violets, specially the single blue, which are the earliest; the yellow daffodil; the daisy; the almond-tree in blossom; the peach-tree in blossom; the cornelian-tree in blossom; sweet-briar. In April follow the double white violet; the wallflower; the stock-gilliflower; the cowslip; flower-delices, and lilies of all natures; rosemary-flowers; the tulippa; the double peony; the pale daffodil; the French honeysuckle; the cherry-tree in blossom; the damson and plum-trees in blossom; the white thorn in leaf; the lilac-tree. In May and June come pinks of all sorts, specially the blushpink; roses of all kinds, except the musk, which comes later; honeysuckles; strawberries; bugloss; columbine; the French marigold, flos Africanus; cherry-tree in fruit; ribes; figs in fruit; rasps; vineflowers; lavender in flowers; the sweet satyrian, with the white flower; herba muscaria; lilium convallium; the apple-tree in blossom. In July come gilliflowers of all varieties; musk-roses; the lime-tree in blossom; early pears and plums in fruit; jennetings, codlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit; pears; apricocks; berberries; filberds; musk-melons; monks-hoods, of all colors. In September come grapes; apples; poppies of all colors; peaches; melocotones; nectarines; cornelians; wardens; quinces. In October and the beginning of November come services; medlars; bullaces; roses cut or removed to come late; hollyhocks; and such like. These particulars are for the climate of London; but my meaning is perceived, that you may have ver perpetuum, as the place affords.

And because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air (where it comes and goes like the warbling of music) than in the hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that delight, than to know what be the flowers and plants that do best perfume the air. Roses, damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells; so that you may walk by a whole row of them, and find nothing of their sweetness; yea though it be in a moming’s dew. Bays likewise yield no smell as they grow. Rosemary little; nor sweet marjoram. That which above all others yields the sweetest smell in the air is the violet, specially the white double violet, which comes twice a year; about the middle of April, and about Bartholomew-tide. Next to that is the musk-rose. Then the strawberry-leaves dying, which yield a most excellent cordial smell. Then the flower of vines; it is a little dust, like the dust of a bent, which grows upon the cluster in the first coming forth. Then sweet-briar. Then wall-flowers, which are very delightful to be set under a parlor or lower chamber window. Then pinks and gilliflowers, especially the matted pink and clove gilliflower. Then the flowers of the lime-tree. Then the honeysuckles, so they be somewhat afar off. Of beanflowers I speak not, because they are field flowers. But those which perfume the air most delightfully, not passed by as the rest, but being trodden upon and crushed, are three; that is, burnet, wild-thyme, and watermints. Therefore you are to set whole alleys of them, to have the pleasure when you walk or tread.

For gardens (speaking of those which are indeed princelike, as we have done of buildings), the contents ought not well to be under thirty acres of ground; and to be divided into three parts; a green in the entrance; a heath or desert in the going forth; and the main garden in the midst; besides alleys on both sides. And I like well that four acres of ground be assigned to the green; six to the heath; four and four to either side; and twelve to the main garden. The green hath two pleasures: the one, because nothing is more pleasant to the eye than green grass kept finely shorn; the other, because it will give you a fair alley in the midst, by which you may go in front upon a stately hedge, which is to enclose the garden. But because the alley will be long, and, in great heat of the year or day, you ought not to buy the shade in the garden, by going in the sun through the green, therefore you are, of either side the green, to plant a covert alley upon carpenter’s work, about twelve foot in height, by which you may go in shade into the garden. As for the making of knots or figures, with divers colored earths, that they may lie under the windows of the house on that side which the garden stands, they be but toys; you may see as good sights, many times, in tarts. The garden is best to be square, encompassed on all the four sides with a stately arched hedge. The arches to be upon pillars of carpenter’s work, of some ten foot high, and six foot broad; and the spaces between of the same dimension with the breadth of the arch. Over the arches let there be an entire hedge of some four foot high, framed also upon carpenter’s work; and upon the upper hedge, over every arch, a little turret, with a belly, enough to receive a cage of birds: and over every space between the arches some other little figure, with broad plates of round colored glass gilt, for the sun to play upon. But this hedge I intend to be raised upon a bank, not steep, but gently slope, of some six foot, set all with flowers. Also I understand, that this square of the garden, should not be the whole breadth of the ground, but to leave on either side, ground enough for diversity of side alleys; unto which the two covert alleys of the green, may deliver you. But there must be no alleys with hedges, at either end of this great enclosure; not at the hither end, for letting your prospect upon this fair hedge from the green; nor at the further end, for letting your prospect from the hedge, through the arches upon the heath.

For the ordering of the ground, within the great hedge, I leave it to variety of device; advising nevertheless, that whatsoever form you cast it into, first, it be not too busy, or full of work. Wherein I, for my part, do not like images cut out in juniper or other garden stuff; they be for children. Little low hedges, round, like welts, with some pretty pyramids, I like well; and in some places, fair columns upon frames of carpenter’s work. I would also have the alleys, spacious and fair. You may have closer alleys, upon the side grounds, but none in the main garden. I wish also, in the very middle a fair mount, with three ascents, and alleys, enough for four to walk abreast; which I would have to be perfect circles, without any bulwarks or embossments; and the whole mount to be thirty foot high; and some fine banqueting-house, with some chimneys neatly cast, and without too much glass.

For fountains, they are a great beauty and refreshment; but pools mar all, and make the garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two natures: the one that sprinkleth or spouteth water; the other a fair receipt of water, of some thirty or forty foot square, but without fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, which are in use, do well: but the main matter is so to convey the water, as it never stay, either in the bowls or in the cistern; that the water be never by rest discolored, green or red or the like; or gather any mossiness or putrefaction. Besides that, it is to be cleansed every day by the hand. Also some steps up to it, and some fine pavement about it, doth well. As for the other kind of fountain, which we may call a bathing pool, it may admit much curiosity and beauty; wherewith we will not trouble ourselves: as, that the bottom be finely paved, and with images; the sides likewise; and withal embellished with colored glass, and such things of lustre; encompassed also with fine rails of low statuas. But the main point is the same which we mentioned in the former kind of fountain; which is, that the water be in perpetual motion, fed by a water higher than the pool, and delivered into it by fair spouts, and then discharged away under ground, by some equality of bores, that it stay little. And for fine devices, of arching water without spilling, and making it rise in several forms (of feathers, drinking glasses, canopies, and the like), they be pretty things to look on, but nothing to health and sweetness.

For the heath, which was the third part of our plot, I wish it to be framed, as much as may be, to a natural wildness. Trees I would have none in it, but some thickets made only of sweet-briar and honeysuckle, and some wild vine amongst; and the ground set with violets, strawberries, and primroses. For these are sweet, and prosper in the shade. And these to be in the heath, here and there, not in any order. I like also little heaps, in the nature of mole-hills (such as are in wild heaths), to be set, some with wild thyme; some with pinks; some with germander, that gives a good flower to the eye; some with periwinkle; some with violets; some with strawberries; some with cowslips; some with daisies; some with red roses; some with lilium convallium; some with sweet-williams red; some with bear’s-foot: and the like low flowers, being withal sweet and sightly. Part of which heaps, are to be with standards of little bushes pricked upon their top, and part without. The standards to be roses; juniper; hory; berberries (but here and there, because of the smell of their blossoms); red currants; gooseberries; rosemary; bays; sweetbriar; and such like. But these standards to be kept with cutting, that they grow not out of course.

For the side grounds, you are to fill them with variety of alleys, private, to give a full shade, some of them, wheresoever the sun be. You are to frame some of them, likewise, for shelter, that when the wind blows sharp you may walk as in a gallery. And those alleys must be likewise hedged at both ends, to keep out the wind; and these closer alleys must be ever finely gravelled, and no grass, because of going wet. In many of these alleys, likewise, you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts; as well upon the walls, as in ranges. And this would be generally observed, that the borders wherein you plant your fruit-trees, be fair and large, and low, and not steep; and set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, lest they deceive the trees. At the end of both the side grounds, I would have a mount of some pretty height, leaving the wall of the enclosure breast high, to look abroad into the fields.

For the main garden, I do not deny, but there should be some fair alleys ranged on both sides, with fruit-trees; and some pretty tufts of fruit-trees; and arbors with seats, set in some decent order; but these to be by no means set too thick; but to leave the main garden so as it be not close, but the air open and free. For as for shade, I would have you rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, there to walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of the year or day; but to make account, that the main garden is for the more temperate parts of the year; and in the heat of summer, for the morning and the evening, or overcast days.

For aviaries, I like them not, except they be of that largeness as they may be turfed, and have living plants and bushes set in them; that the birds may have more scope, and natural nestling, and that no foulness appear in the floor of the aviary. So I have made a platform of a princely garden, partly by precept, partly by drawing, not a model, but some general lines of it; and in this I have spared for no cost. But it is nothing for great princes, that for the most part taking advice with workmen, with no less cost set their things together; and sometimes add statuas and such things for state and magnificence, but nothing to the true pleasure of a garden.


2016-3-21 22:22
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Xiaoman

#21  

请教老师一个问题,我计划翻译一些文章,然后投稿。我知道有人译过,但我不会参考他人的译本。如果我的译文刊登了,并碰巧有雷同的地方,会不会被人投诉我抄袭? 假设有这个情况,我怎样证明自己没有抄袭?谢谢!


2016-4-2 18:08
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#22  



引用:
Originally posted by Xiaoman at 2016-4-2 18:08:
请教老师一个问题,我计划翻译一些文章,然后投稿。我知道有人译过,但我不会参考他人的译本。如果我的译文刊登了,并碰巧有雷同的地方,会不会被人投诉我抄袭? 假设有这个情况,我怎样证明自己没有抄袭?谢谢!

哈,这里都是你的老师,你也是这里所有人的老师,难道你忘了孔老夫子的教诲了吗?他说,三人行必有我师。所以以后互相还是平等称呼比较好。

我不知道你为什么担心这个问题,我觉得很没有必要。抄就是抄,一眼就能看出来。自己动脑筋的,就是自己动脑筋的。雷同当然会有,但雷同跟抄不是一回事,行文里可以看得出来。


2016-4-2 22:45
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Xiaoman

#23  

谢谢!我就是想抄但又怕露破绽。我先小人之心度君子之腹,那个翻译家是大教授。我打算先翻译三两篇,


2016-4-2 23:05
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Xiaoman

#24  

好,我先多读几篇类似的有关文章,我相信自己能译得好,等我好消息!


2016-4-2 23:22
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fanghuzhai

#25  

汉译英,翻人之所不翻就没事了。英译汉,同样文章可以换个风格。如培根散文,自有王佐良译谈读书以来,似乎成了译介规范。但其他文章都很长,都如此翻,累死人。不如就用当代普通话。如果你第一个这样做,就没人告你。


2016-4-3 06:30
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Xiaoman

#26  



引用:
Originally posted by fanghuzhai at 2016-4-3 06:30:
汉译英,翻人之所不翻就没事了。英译汉,同样文章可以换个风格。如培根散文,自有王佐良译谈读书以来,似乎成了译介规范。但其他文章都很长,都如此翻,累死人。不如就用当代普通话。如果你第一个这样做,就没人告..

是中译英,徐霞客的游记。

翻译是卢长怀教授, 我在网上看到他的书的介绍,但找不到内容。 可能是版权不允许在网上张贴。 http://www.amazon.cn/%E8%8B%B1%E ... AE%B0/dp/B004Q255FI


两位老师感兴趣推荐我去翻译一些有趣的东西吗? 古散文,游记,有趣,好玩,幽默的, 适合老外看的那种。  

谢谢!



使君才气卷波澜。与把好诗再译
2016-4-3 10:24
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fanghuzhai

#27  

笔记文可以考虑。在中国文学中自成一个体系。英语文学似乎没有,所以值得译介。笔记文短小精干,自然讲究修辞,对翻译也有一定的挑战性。以前我有过这个念头,一直未动。短小,翻起来容易集中精力,不至于太累。


2016-4-3 13:41
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#28  



引用:
Originally posted by Xiaoman at 2016-4-3 10:24:


是中译英,徐霞客的游记。

翻译是卢长怀教授, 我在网上看到他的书的介绍,但找不到内容。 可能是版权不允许在网上张贴。 [url]http://www.amazon.cn/%E8%8B%B1%E8%AF%91%E5%BE%90%E9%9C%9E%E5%AE%A2%E6%..

不知你派什么用处?如要在美加出版,找一些适合他们读的,比如反映现代中国的,容易出版。


2016-4-3 19:48
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Xiaoman

#29  

[quote]Originally posted by at 2016-4-3 19:48:


deleteD



使君才气卷波澜。与把好诗再译
2016-4-3 22:42
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Xiaoman

#30  

游庐山日记   作者:徐霞客

戊午(1618年),余同兄雷门、白夫,以八月十八日至九江。易小舟,沿江南入龙开河,二十里,泊李裁缝堰。登陆,五里,过西林寺,至东林寺。寺当庐山之阴,南面庐山,北倚东林山。山不甚高,为庐之外廊。中有大溪,自东而西,驿路界其间,为九江之建昌孔道。寺前临溪,入门为虎溪桥,规模甚大,正殿夷毁,右为三笑堂。


Leimen, Baifu, my two male cousins on my father's side and I  journeyed to Jiujiang,  on April, 18, Wuwu (in the 46th year of the Wanli reign period, 1618). After arriving in Jiujiang, we transfered to a small boat, heading toward the south along the Yangze River, we then entered the Longkai River for the water route of 20 li before docking  at the dam named Tailor Li. We went ashore, walked about five li, passing by the Xilin Temple, and then we arrived at the Donglin Temple.  The Donglin Temple faces against the north side of Mount Lu, and its north leans against the Mount Donglin. Acting as the outline of the Mount Lu, the Mount Donglin is not very high. Inside the Mount Lu, there is a big brook running from the east to the west. A post road there works as the demarcation for these two mountains, which is also the thoroughfare between Jiujiang and Jianchang. The front door of the Donglin Temple faces  the brook water. Entering the temple you will see the Tiger Creek Bridge on a grand scale. The main hall of the temple had been destroyed and razed to the ground. To the right, there stands the Laughter of Fame.

第一段的翻译练习


2016-4-4 12:37
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Xiaoman

#31  

用处是,如果被出版社接受的话能出版最好,不能的话收藏起来,慢慢地积累,到老时经常量一量,享受那个“著作等身” 的感觉。 我的速度比较慢, 需要特殊印刷技术,有没有砖头那样厚的纸?


2016-4-4 14:48
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Xiaoman

#32  

Badminton Diary 2

昨天的球场比上次热闹,大概有20来人,其中有几位新人。刚到Gym时我看到场上双打的几位有我英语老师Brian和那位打得不错的老太太。 几个新人是三个年青小伙子, 年龄大概10多20岁,一个瘦高,一个壮实,一个中等个子并留了小胡子。Gym边上的板凳上坐着观看的有两个女人,那个膝盖上放着文件夹和纸张的女人看着像是社工的样子,另一个是穿着棕色袍子,戴黑色头巾的中年女人。我跟她们打招呼,她们微笑着回礼。我猜那几个小伙子这个戴头巾的女人是来自叙利亚的刚刚着陆不久的难民。
        The bandminton courts were quite busy yesterday.  There were approximately 20 some players including 3 new comers.  As I arrived at the gym I saw  Brian and the senior lady playing with the other two people. The three new comers are young people, late teens. One is thin and tall, the other has a solid build and the third young guy has a medium build and a goatee beard. Two women sat on the bench at the side of the gym.  One of the women is white. The binder and papers on her laps made her look like a social worker who just had toured her clients around the town and stopped by the gym, and the other woman, the social worker's client,  was wearing  a brown robe and a black hijab, at her middle age. I greeted them and they said Hi  back to me with a smile.  I guessed that the woman in hijab and the three young boys are refugees from Syria and recently landed in Canada.


我在做热身运动的时候,Brian的比赛打完了,他过来问我要不要打Game,我说好呀。然后我们找来另一个人,Danial,我上次和他打过的。

然后我们邀请那几位年轻人其中一个加入双打。那三个年轻人中,瘦高的那个小伙子过来,我和Brian跟他握手,自我介绍。我说:“你好,我叫小曼,来自中国。你从哪里来?” 他说:“叙利亚。” 我说:“欢迎来到加拿大!” 他笑笑,很腼腆的样子,但没说自己的名字。When I was doing warm-up exercises, Brian finished the game. He asked me if I wanted to play the game, I said yes. Then we got another player, Danial, who I played with last time.

Then we invited one of those young guys to play the doubles game. The  tall young man came over.  Brian and I shook hands with him, and we introduced ourselves. I said, "Hello, my name is Xiaoman,  from China. Where are you from? "He said, " Syria. "I said, " Welcome to Canada! "He smiled. You can tell that he is a very shy person. He forgot to  tell us his name.


当我们准备就绪进入球场区时,那瘦高小伙子却跑掉了,他让他朋友来替代他。后来我知道他打得不好,我猜是不好意思陪我们玩。 Brian说没问题,我们跟那个壮实,个性显得外向的小伙子握手互相介绍,我说:“欢迎来到加拿大!” 他笑说“ Sorry I don't speak English”他不讲英语,哈,这也是我刚来加拿大时候曾经说过的话。 Brian笑说他应该去他的英语班学习。When we were ready to go into the court area, the lanky young man got cold feet and he ran to ask his friend, the one with medium build and a goatee beard, to take his place.  So we shook hands again. The goatee young man seemed to have an outgoing personality.  I said, "Hi, my name is Xiaoman. Welcome to Canada! "  He smiled and said, "Sorry I don't speak English. "  we both laughed. I have the same experience when I first came to Canada. Brian said to me "Oh, he should come to my class. " I agreed  with him.


“好,现在我们开始把,小曼,你愿意做我搭档,跟我去那边球区吗?” 我说好的。我故意说:“you like me? ”  他配合我,说,“Oh yes, of course!”当然了. 我们笑起来。 Brian 是虔诚的基督教徒,是一个退休工程师,热心于义务教新移民英语。我们的比赛很好玩。 我不知道我是否能够再去玩, 因为下一周开始我就开始很忙,就像一个大公司的CEO那样忙。我会看看是否有办法从办公室偷走出去打球而不被人发现。 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_RY7bJNoIo

Brian then said, "OK, let's begin, Xiaoman, would you like to be with me?" I said, "Yes!  Of course. You like me?"  Brian said, "Yes, of course! "  We laughed.  Brian is a retired enginnere. He immigranted to Canada in 1970s, a devout Christian who is passionate about helping new comers to learn English. I had a good time playing with Brian, Daniel and the goatee young guy from Syria.  I am not sure if I could go back next time. Based on my schedule,  starting from next week on,  I will be very busy like a CEO of a big company. Anyway,I will see if  I can sneak out of my office and go to play badminton again without being caught next Monday.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_RY7bJNoIo


2016-4-5 12:42
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Xiaoman

#33  

Now my body is sore all over from yesterday's game. The sore and pain make me feel that I am more than 106 years old.


2016-4-5 13:26
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Xiaoman

#34  

Source: http://www.enotes.com/homework-h ... n-prose-style-68555

What are the salient features of Bacon's prose style?
培根散文风格的显著特征有哪些?

Bacon’s prose style includes a number of features common to the Elizabethans and the Jacobeans:
培根的散文风格具有伊丽莎白和詹姆士一世时期作品的一些共同特征 ︰

1) The of Bacon remains for the main part aphoristic. These are a terseness of expression and epigrammatic brevity in the essays of Bacon. In fact, the essays of Bacon have to be read slowly because of the compact and condensed thought. There are a number of lines, which are read like proverbs. As for example we can quote the essay Of Truth. In this essay Bacon says“ A lie faces God and shrinks pleasure. These sentences show that Bacon is a man of practical wisdom.

2) This aphoristic style always depends on the device of balance and antithesis. In the essay Of Studies. Bacon says, Studies serve for ornament and for ability In the essay Of Studies he says “ Read not to contradict, nor to believe, but to weigh and consider. He scrupulously presents the advantages and the disadvantages of a particular issue. In the essay Of Mavriage and Single life. Bacon says that an unmarried man is a good friend, good master and good servant, but he is unreliable as a good citizen. In Of Parents and Children Bacon says that children sweeten labour lent they make misfortune bitterer; they increase the care of life but they mitigate the remembrance of death. This sort of weighing and balancing makes his style antithetical.

3) In Bacon’s style there is an over luxuriance of figures of speech. Bacon is a past master of simile and metaphor. The fact is that Bacon’s mind was wonderfully quick in perceiving analogies of ass types. His similes and metaphors are telling. They strike, they charm and sometimes they thrill. As for example in the essay Of Truth Bacon writes: A mixture of falsehood is like alloy in coin of gold and silver which may make the metal work better, but it debaseth it. In Of Study he says: Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested.

4) Bacon is a master of rhetoric and pithy sentences in his essays. Indeed, the secu of Bacon’s strength lies in his conciseness. We ignored the unnecessary conceits and over crowded imagery of the Enthusiast; but he knew, how to high up his thought with well-placed figures and give to it an imaginative glow and charm when required.

Bacon’s style was suited for all occasions. His prose style was eminently fitted for such dignified subjects as Truth, Atheism and Love and also such ordinary subjects as ‘Marriage and single life’ and gardening.’The adaptability to the subject matter was a characteristic quality of his writings.

To conclude we may say that Bacon’s style is compact yet polished and indeed some of its conciseness is due to the skillful adaptation of Latin idiom and phrase. But its wealth of metaphor is characteristically Elizabethan and reflects the exuberance of the Renaissance. No man in English literature is so fertile in pregnant and pithy comparisons. Bacon set up a new method of prose writing, which was at once easy, simple, graceful, rhetorical, musical and condensed.


2016-4-9 06:55
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Xiaoman

#35  

Bacon’s Contribution to English Prose
培根对英国散文的贡献

https://neoenglish.wordpress.com ... n-to-english-prose/

Introduction:

“A bell ringer who is up first to call others to church”-these words of Bacon himself amply sum up his contribution to the world of letters. He was the earliest to seek (in his Advancement of Learning) the ways and means to unify and consolidate learning; he was almost the first to show (through his History of Henry the Seventh) the possibilities of an authentic historical discourse free alike from the elements of myth and legend as well as strained conceits and stylistic gewgaws; he was definitely the first to forward (through his New Atlantis) the plea for a college of scientific research; then he was the first to naturalise into English a new species of literature, namely, the essay.


But, above all, Bacon was the first to set up through his personal example a model of English prose which had hitherto been non-existent. Referring to Bacon’s contribution to English prose Hugh Walker observes : “He took one of the biggest steps ever taken in the evolution of English prose style, a step which set that style on the road which it travelled, though not without divagations, down to the days of Swift and Addison.”

Prose before Bacon:

Roughly speaking modern prose begins with Dryden and the writers of the closing years of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth. We, no doubt, agree with Douglas Bush that it is a ‘Vulgar error” to suppose that Dryden started something altogether new. He observes: “Literary history has given currency to the notion that prose writing before 1660 was largely ornate and poetical and that a plain, workaday, modern style was first inaugurated after the Restoration chiefly through the efforts of the Royal Society to develop this along with other elements of rts Baeenian heritage.” In fact, to quote Bush again, “Dryden and his fellows represented a culmination rather than a beginning.” Dryden completed the transition of English prose from antiquity to modernity. Several of Dryden’s predecessors also contributed towards this transition. Among them Bacon occupies a very important place.

Ascham:

To assess the importance of Bacon in the history of English prose it is desirable to have a glance at the prose of his immediate predecessors and contemporaries, and then to see in what ways he registered an improvement upon it. Among such persons the most important were Ascham, Lyly, Sidney, and Hooker. All of them had some definite achievement to their names. We cannot justly dismiss them as antiquated prose poets who wrote unnatural, over-ornamented, strained, prolix, and turgid prose. Take, for example, the work of Ascham. Ascham’s prose is far from ornate. In his Toxophilus he puts forward the claim that he is “writing this English matter in the English speech for Englishmen.” He seems to have put special emphasis on English in order to proclaim his independence from the mannerisms imported from Italy and France and so popular with his contemporary prose writers. This claim, as Saintsbury points out” is no mere figure of rhetoric or bit of jingle but a sentence to which the author adheres as far as possible throughout his work. “In his vocabulary and syntax Ascham is racy, direct, and simple. However like most contemporaries, he retains and even abuses the especially English device of alliteration. He is also fond of balance and antithesis which remind one of Lyly, so much so that he has been charged with “Euphuism before Euphues.'” Saintsbury lists two defects of Ascham’s style as follows:

(i)         “It was very ill-fitted for fanciful, gorgeous or passionate expression.”

(ii)        It tended sometimes “to degenerate into lameness, commonness, insipidity.”

Nevertheless, Ascham’s work constitutes a definite landmark in the history of prose. Saifttsbury .observes : “The period of mere… …experiments in stocking the vocabulary and arranging the syntax, had ceased, experiments in all directions had been made in point of subject, and at length a fairly normal style had been attained, suitable, as Ascham himself showed, for a good variety of literary purposes, if not for all.”

Lyly:

John Lyly, dramatist and poet, is best known, however for his prose work Euphues which gave a new example of highly ornamental, gorgeous, and poetical prose. Lyly gave a new word “Euphuism” representing the qualities, including the stylistic characteristics, of his famous work, Euphues. Euphues was followed by Eupheus and His England. Saintsbury calls Lyly “a great mannerist ifi style” who revolted against simple style. Euphuistic-style is marked by various mannerisms such as excessive use of alliteration, often highly artificial, and strained use of similes from all kinds of sources, but especially the “unnatural natural history,” and still more especially “the fanciful zoology of the Middle Ages”, use of rhetorical question, over-incidence of parentheses, and so on. As regards syntax, it was highly diffuse and loose, or, as it may be called, “Ciceronian.” Simplicity was at a discount, whereas uncommonness and remoteness (even unintelligibility) and artifice were exalted. However, one discordant note in Euphuism may also be noted. That is the frequency of typically native phrases, such as “I am of the shoemaker’s mind who careth not so the shoe hold the plucking on.” Such phrases are, surprisingly enough, commoner in Lyly than in Ascham.

Sidney:

Sir Philip Sidney-courtier, poet, soldier, critic, and prose stylist-was another who helped English prose to come to its own.-He is famous for The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia, a pastoral romance which achieved immediate and immense popularity. A critic observes about Sidney: “He put aside the elaborate affectations of Lyly, and while not free from mannerism struck a happy compromise between the straightforward simplicity of Ascham and the highly coloured complexity of Euphuism.” His prose is generally simple though, in cadence and occasional alliteration, somewhat poetical. The syntax, again, is somewhat unorganised and diffuse.

Hooker:

It was Hooker, one of Bacon’s contemporaries, who through his Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity gave a model of simple, straightforward, yet grave and elevated prose for the treatment of serious and philosophical subjects. This was not a model for all kinds of subjects, however. Hooker is lucid and grave from the beginning to the end. In his syntax, however, he is the perfection of Ciceronianism. He depends too much on Latinism in his syntax, though much less in his vocabulary. As Goldsmith jeeringly remarked about Johnson’s style, Hooker’s style is good enough for the mouths of whales, but hardly those of little fishes. ThuSj it was not a model for all kinds of subjects, but only of a limited kind.

Bacon Provided the Model:

It was for Bacon to provide such a workingmodel. The prose of his essays set up such a model of lucid, straightforward English which could serve as a vehicle for all kinds of subjects, both grave and trivial, high and low. Bacon’s prose is free from needless artifice, ornament, prolixity, and diffuseness which are qualities of the prose of most of his contemporaries and immediate predecessors. Simplicity, lucidity, and flexibility are the keynotes of his style. Though he retained some liking for analogy, antithesis, and such like qualities reminiscent of the prose of his predecessors, yet, on the whole, he recorded an unmistakable break with the past to give a prose which was suitable for the treatment of all kinds of subjecls.lrrhis Essays he treats of such elevated .themes as justice and truth on the one hand, and, on the other, such trifling themes as masques and triumphs which, in his own words, are no more than “toys.” “The new style of Bacon” observes Hugh Walker, “fitted itself as easily to buildings and gardens as to suitors or ceremonies, as to truth and death. It could sink to the familarity of likening money to muck, not good unless it be spread or rise to a comparison between the movement of the human mind and the movement of the heavenly bodies.”

Revolt against Ciceronianisra:

Bacon was the first English prose writer who revolted against the highly organised (or Ciceronian) prose style of his contemporaries and immediate predecessors. He was, in the words of Douglas Bush, “the theoretical and practical leader of the anti-Ciceronian movement in England.” The anti-Ciceronian movement aimed at furthering the cause of simplicity, naturalness, and straightforwardness in expression. As regards syntax, it favoured short sentences. It favoured conversational ease against strained, artificial expression. It is evident that Bacon in his Essays put forward a glorious example of the possibilities of natural, anti-Ciceronian expression free from stylistic gewgaws, prolixity, circumlocution, intentional “poetisms”, and remote analogies. There is nothing in the style of his Essays which may put one in mind of the grand, rolling, finished periods of a lumbering length rich in majestic harmonies. Bacon’s style is, on the bther hand, aphoristic rather than Ciceronian. Comparing the aphoristic with the highly organised Ciceronian style. Bacon himself pointed out: “Aphorisms representing a knowledge broken, do invite men to inquire farther; whereas Methods [that is. the Circeronian form] do secure men, as if they were at farthest.”

Simplicity and Precision:

Through the prose of his Essays Bacon set new-standards of simplicity and precision which were later to be accepted as the hall­marks of good, prose. Being a scientist himself Bacon was critical of all ambiguity, prolixity, circumlocution, and needless ornamentation which go ill with everyday prose. His attitude to words was the same as his atitude to knowledge, that is, their subservience to utility. It is, said he. “the first distemper of learning when men study words and not matter,” for “words are but the images of matter; and except they have ~:fe of reason and invention, to fall in love with them is all one as to fall – “ove with a picture.” Bacon himself never fell in love with “pictures.” He was an economiser as regards words, and would never ose two where one would suffice. That is particularly true of his earlier essays in which his style borders upon the bald. In succinctness the style of his essays comes close to the standard laid down by Ben Jonson: “A strict and succinct style is that where you can take away nothing without loss, and that loss to be manifest.” Bacon’s extremely condensed and terse expression is sui generis. None after him seriously tried to imitate the particular flavour of his style, probably because without his massive mind and intellectual equipment it was impossible to do so. Nevertheless Bacon’s importance lies in the fact that he imported into English prose a new sense of precision and clarity.

The Elizabethan Quality:

Though in the precision and clarity of his prose Bacon looks forward to the moderns, yet he is not altogether/rnodern. His prose is still tinctured with a bit of the Elizabethan colour, a true child of the age as he is. Take, for instance, his frequent use of Latinisms. That is the legacy of an age in which Latin was the medium of instruction. The Renaissance had brought an awareness of the treasures of Latin and Greek literature. Further, in Bacon’s prose theife is occasional occurrence of all kinds of analogies so popular with his contemporaries, Particularly the Euphuists. However his analogies, similes, and mataphors are not like the “conceits” of his contemporaries and immediate predecessors. Further, some instances of ungrammatical structure can be quoted from his essays. His use of obsolete and obsolescent words is also reminiscent of his Elizabethanism. In short, Bacon belongs partly to the age of Elizabeth and partly he looks forward to the late seventeenth-century and early eighteenth-century prose writers such as Dryden, Addison, Steele, and Swift. Redpath says: “It is probably more helpful simply to say that Bacon’s prose occupies a position somewhere between the plentiful irregular vitality of the typical Elizabethans and the late 17th century barer styles.”

A New Genre:

Bacon’s importance in the history of English prose is also due to his naturalisation of a new genre in English. We are referring to the essay. He borrowed the concept of the essay from Montaigne, the French Writer, whose Essais appeared in 1580, seventeen years before the first edition of his own Esstny. Bacon modified the concept of the essay so as to make it suit his own particular genius. He used it not as a vehicle of self-revelation as Montaigne did, but a repository of dispersed meditations”—impersonal, practical, and worldly. Later the essay underwent a substantial change in the hands of his many followers. However, it still holds that it was Bacon who was the father of the English essay. For sheer mass of intellect he remains till now the greatest of English essayists. His importance is, therefore, not only due to precedence but also to excellence. Bush well compares Bacon followed by his successors to a whale followed by a school of porpoises.


2016-4-9 11:58
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Xiaoman

#36  

培根的书信及生平
电子书:
https://archive.org/stream/lette ... g#page/n27/mode/2up


2016-4-10 15:52
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Xiaoman

#37  

今天休息,(明天工作继续Training. )

早上学习徐老师的英译作品【始得西山宴游记】

“尺寸千里,攒蹙累积,莫得遁隐。”  不能直译。

第  1 幅

第  2 幅


2016-4-12 08:29
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Xiaoman

#38  

“The essays of Bacon have to be read very slowly because of the compact and condensed thought.”

培根的散文行文紧凑,内涵丰富,所以一定要慢慢研读。

Bacon as a father of modern english literature
1. BACON AS A FATHER OF MODERN ENGLISH LITERATURE AND HIS PROSE STYLE IN DIFFERENT ESSAY’S. By Ayesha Khalid BS English Literature
2.  DEFINITION OF PROSE:  The word prose is derived from the Latin word 'prorsus' which means direct or straight and also signifies the plain speech of mankind. It is written without any reference to the rules of verse. We can also say that it is an excellent medium of expression.
3.  BACKGROUND:  The art of prose writing developed during the Middle ages lost its glory and during Renaissance it again achieved the highest position. Bacon is one of the champion of renaissance. The great defect found in English prose was prolixity and diffuseness. Bacon put an end to this. He evolved such a prose style which proved that English can be used as a medium of expression. Due to this he is regarded as the "Father of Modern English Prose "
4.  PROSE STYLE:  Bacon's prose style is very distinctive and aphoristic. This is the main reason of his utmost respect and admiration in both literary and non literary circles.
5.  SALIENT FEATURES OF HIS STYLE: 1: Aphoristic Style: Bacon's style is most remarkable for its terseness and condensation. Although his sentences are brief but they are extremely forceful. He knows the art of making huge statements into abridged form, which appears to be very captivating and enchanting for readers. The essays of Bacon have to be read very slowly because of the compact and condensed thought. His essays are the true model of aphorism. Examples: 1: Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.( Of Studies) This statement appears to be very condensed and concise but the thought it carries is quiet deep. It represents that study is an activity which brings joy and happiness and enhances our thinking ,writing ,reading and speaking abilities. It also adds charm to our personality. Study is the most finest way of gaining wisdom. 2: Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.(Of Studies) It means that reading adds perfection to man's personality. Discussing with others about the contents of book impart special practical skills to the reader. Writing removes all the residual weakness from the reader's personality. 3: Men fear death as children fear to go in the dark; and as that natural fear in children is increased with tales, so is the other.(Of Death)
6.  2: Antithetical statements: The force of aphoristic statements depends upon other stylistic devices which supplement them; such devices are the 'balance' and 'antithesis' which mark the most of his sentence structure. Examples: In essay Of Studies there is a use of three fold balance. 1: Studies serve for delight, for ornament and for ability. 2: Crafty men condemn studies, simple men admire them ,and wise men use them. 3: Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested. 3:A Rhetorician: Bacon is considered as one of the greatest rhetorician. He has a great power of attracting and persuading his readers. His essays are the finest examples of his persuasion. Examples: 1: A man that sudieth revenge, keeps his own wounds green. This example is taken from Of Revenge.
7.  4:His Imagery and Analogy: The extensive use of metaphors, images, similes and analogies add excellence to the Bacon's essays. According to Bacon these devices are important for persuasion. He draws his imagery from nature and everyday life while he draws his analogies from classical mythology, Bible, astronomy and philosophy. Examples: Use of analogy: 1:Clear and round creating is the honor of men's nature and that mixture of falsehood is like alloy in coin of gold and silver, which may make the mental work better, but it embaseth it. In this essay Of Truth, Bacon's communicates the idea of man's natural love of lie and proneness to mix falsehood with truth. He compares the falsehood to an alloy in the coin of gold or silver. The alloy makes the metal work better, but it lowers the value of metal. Use of metaphors: 2: For a crowd is not company, and faces are but a gallery of pictures, and talk but a thinking symbol, where there is no love. 3:Certainly it is heaven upon earth to have men's mind move in charity, rest in providence, and turn upon the pole of truth These examples are taken from an essay Of Truth. 5:Allusion and Quotations: History bears the testimony that Bacon draws many allusions and quotations from classical fables, Bible, History, the ancient Greek and Roman writers and also from the collection of proverbs. They serve to make his style more scholarly. Example: In his essay Of Truth he draws allusions and quotations from Lucian, Lucretius and Montaigne.
8.  6: Symmetrical Syntax: According to B.Vicker Syntactical symmetry is another quality of Bacon's style. Syntax refers to the grammatical structure. Example: 1: The good things which belongs to prosperity are to be wished, but the good things which belong to the adversity are to be admired. These lines are taken from Of Adversity ,and through these lines we can easily judge this syntactical style. 7: Wit: There is no humor in Bacon essays but there is ample of wit. He is the master of the skillful use of words. Examples: 1: Through dignities men rises to dignity. 2: By pain men comes to greater pain. 8: Full of Wisdom: Bacon's essays are full of wisdom. His every word is like a pearl in the ocean of knowledge. Example: 1: Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man. It is taken from Of Studies. 9: Obscurity: Sometimes too much condensation leads to obscurity. Example: 1: 'Secrecy in suits is a great mean of obtaining'. It is taken from Of Suitors.
9.  CONCLUSION:  In a nutshell, it can be said that Bacon aphoristic style adds great charm to his work. We can say that his intellect, wit and wisdom are being packed in minimum possible words. There is a note of spontaneity in his essays. We cannot denied his position in English Literature.
10.  CONCLUSION:  In a nutshell, it can be said that Bacon aphoristic style adds great charm to his work. We can say that his intellect, wit and wisdom are being packed in minimum possible words. There is a note of spontaneity in his essays. We cannot denied his position in English Literature.

source: http://www.slideshare.net/tauqee ... -english-literature


2016-4-28 12:25
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Xiaoman

#39  

7: Wit: There is no humor in Bacon essays but there is ample of wit. He is the master of the skillful use of words.

7 : 機智: 培根的散文幽默不足但机智有余。他是语言艺术大师,遣词造句如行云流水。(问候路老师,多谢指正!)


2016-4-28 12:51
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Xiaoman

#40  

李康 【命运论】

 夫治乱,运也;穷达,命也;贵贱,时也。故运之将隆,必生圣明之君。圣明之君,必有忠贤之臣。其所以相遇也,不求而自合;其所以相亲也,不介而自亲。唱之而必和,谋之而必从,道德玄同⑴,曲折合符,得失不能疑其志,谗构不能离其交,然后得成功也。其所以得然者,岂徒人事哉?授之者天也,告之者神也,成之者运也。
第二段

  夫黄河清而圣人生,里社⑵鸣而圣人出,群龙见而圣人用。故伊尹,有莘氏之媵臣也,而阿衡于商。太公,渭滨之贱老也,而尚父于周。百里奚在虞而虞亡,在秦而秦霸,非不才于虞而才于秦也。张良受黄石⑶之符,诵三略之说,以游于群雄,其言也,如以水投石,莫之受也;及其遭汉祖,其言也,如以石投水,莫之逆也。非张良之拙说于陈项,而巧言于沛公也。然则张良之言一也,不识其所以合离?合离之由,神明之道也。故彼四贤者,名载于箓图,事应乎天人,其可格之贤愚哉?孔子曰:“清明在躬,气志如神。嗜欲将至,有开必先。天降时雨,山川出云。”⑷诗云:“惟岳降神,生甫及申;惟申及甫,惟周之翰。”⑸运命之谓也。岂惟兴主,乱亡者亦如之焉。幽王之惑褒女也,祅始于夏庭⑹。曹伯阳之获公孙强也,征发于社宫。叔孙豹之昵竖牛也,祸成于庚宗⑺。吉凶成败,各以数至。咸皆不求而自合,不介而自亲矣。
第三段

  昔者,圣人受命河洛⑻曰:以文命者,七九而衰;以武兴者,六八而谋。及成王定鼎于郏鄏⑼,卜世三十,卜年七百,天所命也。故自幽厉之间,周道大坏,二霸之后,礼乐陵迟。文薄之弊,渐于灵景;辩诈之伪,成于七国。酷烈之极,积于亡秦;文章之贵,弃于汉祖。虽仲尼至圣,颜冉大贤,揖让于规矩之内,訚訚于洙、泗之上,不能遏其端;孟轲、孙卿体二希圣,从容正道,不能维其末,天下卒至于溺而不可援。
第四段

  夫以仲尼之才也,而器不周于鲁卫;以仲尼之辩也,而言不行于定哀;以仲尼之谦也,而见忌于子西;以仲尼之仁也,而取仇于桓魋;以仲尼之智也,而屈厄于陈蔡⑽;以仲尼之行也,而招毁于叔孙。夫道足以济天下,而不得贵于人;言足以经万世,而不见信于时;行足以应神明,而不能弥纶于俗;应聘七十国,而不一获其主;驱骤于蛮夏之域,屈辱于公卿之门,其不遇也如此。及其孙子思,希圣备体,而未之至,封己养高,势动人主。其所游历诸侯,莫不结驷而造门;虽造门犹有不得宾者焉。其徒子夏,升堂而未入于室者也。退老于家,魏文候师之,西河之人肃然归德,比之于夫子而莫敢间其言。故曰:治乱,运也;穷达,命也;贵贱,时也。而后之君子,区区于一主,叹息于一朝。屈原以之沈湘,贾谊以之发愤,不亦过乎!
第五段

  然则圣人所以为圣者,盖在乎乐天知命矣。故遇之而不怨,居之而不疑也。其身可抑,而道不可屈;其位可排,而名不可夺。譬如水也,通之斯为川焉,塞之斯为渊焉,升之于云则雨施,沈之于地则土润。体清以洗物,不乱于浊;受浊以济物,不伤于清。是以圣人处穷达如一也。夫忠直之迕于主,独立之负于俗,理势然也。故木秀于林,风必摧之;堆出于岸,流必湍之;行高于人,众必非之。前监不远,覆车继轨。然而志士仁人,犹蹈之而弗悔,操之而弗失,何哉?将以遂志而成名也。求遂其志,而冒风波于险涂;求成其名,而历谤议于当时。彼所以处之,盖有算矣。子夏曰:“死生有命,富贵在天”故道之将行也,命之将贵也,则伊尹吕尚之兴于商周,百里子房之用于秦汉,不求而自得,不徼而自遇矣。道之将废也,命之将贱也,岂独君子耻之而弗为乎?盖亦知为之而弗得矣。凡希世苟合之士,蘧蒢戚施之人,俛仰尊贵之颜,逶迤势利之间,意无是非,赞之如流;言无可否,应之如响。以窥看为精神,以向背为变通。势之所集,从之如归市;势之所去,弃之如脱遗。其言曰:名与身孰亲也?得与失孰贤也?荣与辱孰珍也?故遂絜其衣服,矜其车徒,冒其货贿,淫其声色,脉脉然自以为得矣。盖见龙逢、比干之亡其身,而不惟飞廉、恶来之灭其族也。盖知伍子胥之属镂于吴,而不戒费无忌之诛夷于楚也。盖讥汲黯之白首于主爵,而不惩张汤牛车之祸也。盖笑萧望之跋踬于前,而不惧石显之绞缢于后也。
第六段

  故夫达者之算也,亦各有尽矣。曰:凡人之所以奔竞于富贵,何为者哉?若夫立德必须贵乎?则幽厉之为天子,不如仲尼之为陪臣也。必须势乎?则王莽、董贤之为三公,不如杨雄、仲舒之閴其门也。必须富乎?则齐景之千驷,不如颜回、原宪之约其身也。其为实乎?则执杓而饮河者,不过满腹;弃室而洒雨者,不过濡身;过此以往,弗能受也。其为名乎?则善恶书于史册,毁誉流于千载;赏罚悬于天道,吉凶灼乎鬼神,固可畏也。将以娱耳目、乐心意乎?譬命驾而游五都之市,则天下之货毕陈矣。褰裳而涉汶阳之丘,则天下之稼如云矣。椎紒而守敖庾、海陵之仓,则山坻之积在前矣。扱衽而登钟山、蓝田之上,则夜光玙璠之珍可观矣。夫如是也,为物甚众,为己甚寡,不爱其身,而啬其神。风惊尘起,散而不止。六疾待其前,五刑随其后。利害生其左,攻夺出其右,而自以为见身名之亲疏,分荣辱之客主哉。
第七段

  天地之大德曰生,圣人之大宝曰位,何以守位曰仁,何以正人曰义。故古之王者,盖以一人治天下,不以天下奉一人也。古之仕者,盖以官行其义,不以利冒其官也。古之君子,盖耻得之而弗能治也,不耻能治而弗得也。原乎天人之性,核乎邪正之分,权乎祸福之门,终乎荣辱之算,其昭然矣。故君子舍彼取此。若夫出处不违其时,默语不失其人,天动星回而辰极犹居其所,玑旋轮转,而衡轴犹执其中,既明且哲,以保其身,贻厥孙谋,以燕翼子者,昔吾先友,尝从事于斯矣。


2016-5-18 06:40
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Xiaoman

#41  

这篇文章能流传到今天,是因为它的立论放在任何时代,任何地方都是正确的。 每个人看问题的角度都有所不同,譬如,幸运的人不知道自己的运气好而常常抱怨,在别人眼里是不幸的人,他们却认为自己是幸运的。如果一个人一天内发生很多不愉快---早上跟老婆吵架,憋屈,出门车子撞了树,回到公司被老板骂,下午回家路上被匪徒拦路抢劫, 当事人认为自己的遭遇是倒霉透顶了, 但他老婆没有因此而生气跑掉, 他没在交通意外中受伤,虽然车子维修需要一笔钱, 老板没虽然骂了他,但没有炒了他,歹徒没有枪杀他,虽然钱包被抢了。  一个女人觉得自己很幸福,有一个好老公,但她老公在外面有小三,大家都知道,她却不知道,所以在别人眼里她是不幸的。

所以说“运也,命也,时也”  任何情况下都可以拿来感概一番,无论是运气好或坏。


“Be lucky - it's an easy skill to learn

Those who think they're unlucky should change their outlook and discover how to generate good fortune, says Richard Wiseman”

A comment about the above:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/techn ... skill-to-learn.html



A decade ago, I set out to investigate luck. I wanted to examine the impact on people's lives of chance opportunities, lucky breaks and being in the right place at the right time. After many experiments, I believe that I now understand why some people are luckier than others and that it is possible to become luckier.


To launch my study, I placed advertisements in national newspapers and magazines, asking for people who felt consistently lucky or unlucky to contact me. Over the years, 400 extraordinary men and women volunteered for my research from all walks of life: the youngest is an 18-year-old student, the oldest an 84-year-old retired accountant.


Jessica, a 42-year-old forensic scientist, is typical of the lucky group. As she explained: "I have my dream job, two wonderful children and a great guy whom I love very much. It's amazing; when I look back at my life, I realise I have been lucky in just about every area."


In contrast, Carolyn, a 34-year-old care assistant, is typical of the unlucky group. She is accident-prone. In one week, she twisted her ankle in a pothole, injured her back in another fall and reversed her car into a tree during a driving lesson. She was also unlucky in love and felt she was always in the wrong place at the wrong time.


Over the years, I interviewed these volunteers, asked them to complete diaries, questionnaires and intelligence tests, and invited them to participate in experiments. The findings have revealed that although unlucky people have almost no insight into the real causes of their good and bad luck, their thoughts and behaviour are responsible for much of their fortune.


2016-5-18 07:10
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Xiaoman

#42  

谢谢阅读我以上的文字。 不知道哪一位大师翻译过李康的【命运论】? Thanks!


2016-5-18 07:22
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Xiaoman

#43  

今天晚上学习内容【长夜属于你】英译,摘自【英译中国当代美文选】徐英才 译

(本书是2015年习近平主席选送美国林肯高中图书馆的学习材料)

第  1 幅

第  2 幅


2016-5-20 08:33
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Xiaoman

#44  

看不清图文,如有兴趣请到我的Facebook阅读,这里比较清楚:https://www.facebook.com/romina.liu.1/posts/1055611877846605


2016-5-20 08:47
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Xiaoman

#45  

Beautiful prose and excellent translation. I just finished reading it. The explanation part is significant to readers who learn translation.


2016-5-21 11:18
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Xiaoman

#46  

造句:By the time I finish this book, what I have learned from it will activate and enliven my mind to its fullest capacity; thus, this book is the source of nutritional support to my future translation.  等读完这本书之后,我从中所学的将会使得我的思想变得活跃而充满生机, 所以这本书是我将来翻译的营养支持来源。


2016-5-21 12:28
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Xiaoman

#47  

“一个人的黄昏”   作者  许云倩   翻译  徐英才

注解

第  1 幅

第  2 幅


2016-6-2 13:36
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Xiaoman

#48  

最近学了“煮熟的蚕茧” 和 “童心丢失的年代(节选)” 译文。觉得散文比小说难翻译,因为小说多对话,比较容易,散文多修辞,想象,跳跃大。路老师的英语译文流畅,地道,学中文的外国人应该读。

第  1 幅


2016-6-7 10:14
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