#1 [原创] 古文英译－－郑伯克段于鄢
Duke Wu of the State of Zheng obtained his wife from the State of Shen, whose name was Wujiang. She gave birth to Duke Zhuang and his younger brother Duan, who later exiled to the State of Gong. When Wujiang begot Duke Zhuang, the baby came out feet first and Wujiang was terrified. She thus named the baby “Born upsidedown” and hated him. Duan her younger son, she loved most and wanted him to be the prince. For many times she begged her husband for this matter, who however never agreed.
及庄公即位，为 之请制。公曰：“制，岩邑也，虢叔死焉。佗邑唯命。”请京，使居之，谓之京 城大叔。
When Duke Zhuang came to power, Wujiang asked him to give the city of Zhi to Duan. Duke Zhuang said:” Zhi is a dangerous place. Duke of Guo died there. If you ask for another place, I will grant it.” Wujiang then asked for the city of Jing. Duke Zhuang agreed to let Duan live there under the title “the Great Young of Jing”.
祭仲曰：“都，城过百雉，国之害也。先王之制：大都，不 过参国之一； 中，五之一；小，九之一。今京不度，非制也，君将不堪。”公曰：“姜氏欲之，焉辟害？”对曰：“姜氏何厌之有？不如早为之所，无使滋蔓！蔓，难图也。蔓 草犹不可除，况君之宠弟乎？”公曰：“多行不义，必自毙，子姑待之。”
Jizhong the court minister said: “when a city becomes too big, it will harm the state. According to our former rulers, the biggest city should not exceed one third of the state capital, a medium sized city, one fifth, and a small city, one ninth. Now the city of Jing is not following the rules and will cause trouble for you. “ Duke Zhuang said : “My mother Jiang wants it that way, what can I do?” Jizhong said: “Your mother’s a bitch whose greed is insatiable. You better find your brother a property place to stop him from expanding his power. When he becomes too powerful, you will find it hard to control him. Wild grass that spread rampantly is hard to root out, much less to say your spoiled brother!” Duke Zhuang said : “if one does too much unjust things, he will invite disaster for himself. You just wait and see.”
Soon the Great Young took the border regions on the west and north of the state. Gongzilv, the uncle of Duke Zhuang , said to him: “ the land of a country cannot be ruled by different rulers. If you want to gave the country to Duan, please allow me to serve him. If not, please get rid of him, so that people won’t confused.” Said Duke Zhuang: “don’t you worry. He will trouble trouble himself.”
The Great Young then claimed two other regions and his power reached Linyan. Zifeng said: “now it’s the time. Otherwise he will get the support of many people.” Duke Zhuang said: “If he does unrighteousness, the more he has, the faster he expires.”
大叔完聚，缮甲兵，具卒乘，将袭郑，夫人将启之。公闻其期，曰：“可矣！” 命子封帅车二百乘以伐京。京叛大叔段，段入于鄢，公伐诸鄢。五月辛丑，大叔 出奔共。
The Great Young, having acquired much, began to build up an army of armored soldiers and battle chariots, so that he could attack the capital of the state. His mother would open the city gate. When Duke Zhuang got the wind of their plot and its execution date, he said: “now!” He ordered Zifeng to lead 200 chariots to attack Jing. The residents there also rose up against Duan the Great Young , causing him to flee to the State of Yan. Duke Zhuang then attacked Yan and the Great Young fled to the State of Gong on the 23rd day of the fifth month of the year.
Historians recorded this incident 按时 “Duke Zheng the Elder Defeated Duan at the State of Yan”. They did not say Duan was the younger brother, because he did not behave like 哦呢. They called Duke Zheng the Elder to implicate him for his failure to educate his younger brother. They meant that he had plotted the whole thing. They did not mention Duan’s exile to 工 because it was hard for them to write this way.
Duke Zheng then detained his mother Jiang at Chengying and vowed that he would see her only in the world of the dead. Having said that, he promptly regretted.
颍考叔为颍谷封人，闻之，有献于公，公赐之食，食舍肉。公问之，对曰： “小人有母，皆尝小人之食矣，未尝君之羹，请以遗之。”公曰：“尔有母遗， 繄我独无！”颍考叔曰：“敢问何谓也？”公语之故，且告之悔。对曰：“君何患焉？若阙地及泉，隧而相见，其谁曰不然？”
Yingkaosu, a local official, heard about the Duke’s repent and went to see him with some gift. The Duke treated him with food, but when he ate, he spared the meat. Duke Zhuang asked why. Yingkaoshu said: “I have a mother who has tasted the food that I prepared, but never tasted the food from your majesty. Please allow me to take the meat home to entertai her.” The Duke said: “ you have a mother to give food to, but I do not have one to please!” “Why?” asked Yingkaoshu. The Duke then told him everything and said he regretted what he had decided. Yingkaoshu said: “Why do you have to worry about this? If you dig a tunnel and meet your mother there, who can say you have gone back on your words?”
The Duke followed his advice. As he entered the tunnel, he chanted: “what happiness we have in this big tunnel!” Jiang, his mother, came out and chanted: “ what happiness we have outside this big tunnel!” The mother and the son reconciled and loved each other thereafter.
Commented a wise man: “Yingkaoshu is in deed a filial son. He loves his mother and let his love influence Duke Zhuang. This is just what the Book of Odes says: “ Many a filial sons, blessing forever runs.”