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福建土楼照片


振 成 楼--土楼王子

  永定客家土楼中,许多土楼是按八卦图设计的,中华传统文化铬印深深地铭刻其中。而最为典型的代表当属振成楼。
 
  振成楼位于湖坑镇洪坑村,建于1912年,占地5000平方米,悬山顶抬梁式构架,分内外两圈,形成楼中有楼,楼外有楼的格局。前门是“巽卦”,而后门为“乾卦”。外楼圈4层,每层48间,每卦6间;每卦设一楼梯,为一单元;卦与卦之间以拱门相通。楼内有一厅、二井(暗合“八卦”中的阴阳两极)、三门(即正大门和两头边门,意合八卦中的天、地、人三才)和八个单元。卦与卦之间是隔火墙,一卦失火,不会殃及全楼;卦与卦之间还设卦门,关闭起来,自成一方,开启起来,各方都可以相通。一旦盗贼入屋,卦门一关,即可瓮中抓活鳖。祖堂似一个舞台,台前立有四根周长近2米、高近7米的大石柱,舞台两侧上下两层 30个房圈成一个内圈,二层廊道精致的铸铁花格栏杆,是从上海运到此楼嵌制的。大厅及门楣上有民国初年黎元洪大总统的"里堂观型"、"义声载道"等题字。楼内还有永久性楹联及题词二十余幅,充分展示了土楼文化的内涵。

  全楼的设施布局既有苏州园林的印迹,也有古希腊建筑的特点。堪称中西合璧的建筑奇葩。1995年它的建筑模型与北京天坛作为中国南北圆形建筑代表参加了美国落杉矶世界建筑展览会,引起了轰动,被誉为“东方建筑明珠”。

  永定人为什么要循八卦建造土楼?究其历史根源:首先客家人从中原迁徙而来的,受中华传统文化思想影响极深,而八卦又是中华传统文化中的经典之一,所以在建造居住的楼房时,加以运用,是情理之中。其次,经过数代的播迁,为求生存,他们面对着自然与社会中种种困难,而八卦自古以来,便被人们用以排兵布阵,抵御敌人。从安全角度出发,在设计、建造土楼时运用八卦,对于睿智的客家人来说,便不足为奇了。

36 评论

转贴:Fujian's earth homes added to list of the world's treasures

From : Shanghai Daily
July 8,  2008

Fujian's earth homes added to list of the world's treasures

By  Chen Qian

The famous earth homes in Fujian Province have been added to the United Nations World Heritage list.

Known as "Tulou" in Chinese, 46 homes were added to the list during the 32nd Session of the World Heritage Committee in Quebec, Canada, on Sunday.

Built from the 11th to the 20th century in the mountainous areas across Fujian and neighboring provinces, the "Tulou" buildings could house a whole clan. They also served other functions such as defense.

The building usually consists of a rammed earth outer wall and internal wooden framework.

Its unique structural form and ingenious interior design highlight the interdependent relations between clan members who lived inside and demonstrate the development of their lifestyle.

"It is unique Chinese architecture. Its special design, defense system and history have attracted world attention," said Huang Hanmin, chief architect with the Fujian Institute of Architectural Design and Research.

The unique Chinese architecture can be traced back to the Song (960-1279) and Yuan (1271-1368) dynasties.

The design and architecture were upgraded in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), according to a report by Xinhuanet.com yesterday.

"Tulou" are mostly built with timber, cobble and soil. They are three to five stories high and usually house dozens of families.

They are usually enclosed and can be square, circular or oval-shaped with a thick earth wall reinforced with wood. They have only one entrance that is guarded by thick wooden doors reinforced with an outer shell of iron. The top level of the earth buildings has gun holes for defense against bandits, the report said.

There are about 3,000 "Tulou" left in Fujian Province. Most are found in Yongding and Nanjing counties and they are well preserved and protected, according to the report. One "Tulou" in Yongding County has 384 rooms and once housed more than 800 people.

The World Heritage List has added 36 Chinese sites since 1987. Once on the list, they qualify for money from the World Heritage Fund, allowing them to develop into major tourist attractions.

UNESCO's 1972 Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage now protects 851 properties of "outstanding universal value," including 660 cultural, 166 natural and 25 mixed properties.

youming  [评] 2008-12-25 13:14

友明为宣传土楼文化做了很多呀~~~节日快乐!

冰花  [评] 2008-12-25 14:12

土楼建筑真的很特别~~~

冰花  [评] 2008-12-25 14:13

对,土楼如此深重厚实,够友明兄挖掘的~~~

weili  [评] 2008-12-25 14:31

介绍几个网站大家自己看土楼信息:

http://www.icm.gov.mo/exhibition/tc/fjintroE.asp

http://travel.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/travel/27heads.html

http://www.discoverfujian.com/fujiantours_show.asp?id=14

http://www.flixya.com/photo/165368/fujian_earth_building_

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fb9L5zXvGbI

http://www.gakei.com/foe/foe.htm

http://www.travelblog.org/Asia/C ... ty/blog-341604.html

http://travel.webshots.com/album/550275875Qwwkcf

入遗
http://www.wsichina.org/morningchina/article.asp?id=3211

youming  [评] 2008-12-25 14:33

No, no. We want to see more, outside and inside. The more the better. Please...

thesunlover  [评] 2008-12-25 14:34

大家有网址了,可以帮忙搬过来的,我也忙挖!

youming  [评] 2008-12-25 14:36

我下乡住的土楼



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 15:32

真是Fascinating ! 特别那张里头拍的。刚问我先生 (他是客家人),好象梅州倒没有。

虔谦  [评] 2008-12-25 15:54



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:03

四菜一汤



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:04



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:09



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:10



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:12



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:16



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:17



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:18



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:21

土楼厅堂



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:24



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:25



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:27



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:28



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:30



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:32



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:35

土楼申报评估剪影



youming  [评] 2008-12-25 16:49

友明,我问个傻问题:是土楼,就一定是客家人的建筑?也就是说,中国其他族群也有相似形式的土楼吗?

weili  [评] 2008-12-25 17:07



引用:
Originally posted by weili at 2008-12-25 10:07 PM:
友明,我问个傻问题:是土楼,就一定是客家人的建筑?也就是说,中国其他族群也有相似形式的土楼吗?

福建土楼有永定土楼和漳州的南靖、华安土楼,永定土楼可以叫客家土楼,南靖、华安土楼就不是客家土楼了。广东、江西也有少量土楼,但是没有列入申遗。

youming  [评] 2008-12-25 17:23



引用:
Originally posted by weili at 2008-12-25 10:07 PM:
友明,我问个傻问题:是土楼,就一定是客家人的建筑?也就是说,中国其他族群也有相似形式的土楼吗?

客家人也是汉族,土楼来源于中原古建筑无疑,但是最先盖土楼的不是客家人,而是漳州人,是漳州沿海先有土楼的,这是权威的福建建筑专家黄汉民的结论。

youming  [评] 2008-12-25 17:27

谢谢友明解释。
客家文化保持了中原传统。而中国近代的许多重要人物,孙中山、李光耀、邓小平、李登辉......还有李兆阳, 都是客家人。我嘴快,你的土楼小说,后面有大背景,值得你铺开局面~~~

weili  [评] 2008-12-25 17:41

友明对土楼真是有很深的感情。且坚定。这种坚定让人感动。
福建的土楼与梅州客家人的“围拢屋”有很大区别。等我在网上找到梅州客家人的“围拢屋”后,我跟贴在友明这条线上。

冬雪儿  [评] 2008-12-25 21:40

很开眼界,谢谢友明!

从土楼的形式结构看,客家人的凝聚力很强,一座楼可以是一个或几个家族,也可
以是一个村落,没有强大的凝聚力不行。友明,是不是这样的?

thesunlover  [评] 2008-12-25 22:18

和大家分享一下找照片的经验,点击这个网站:

http://images.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=qi

再输入“土楼”,就出现:

http://images.google.com/images? ... ch+Images&gbv=2

可以找到很多照片。我2~3分钟就可以贴一张

youming  [评] 2008-12-25 23:08

打倒友明! 搞的这些封资修外加台独来腐蚀我们这些意志薄弱者 还有,也不和你认老乡了。

耳根边说一声:友明,太精彩了,谢谢你!

虔谦  [评] 2008-12-26 01:42



引用:
Originally posted by 虔谦 at 2008-12-26 06:42 AM:
打倒友明! 搞的这些封资修外加台独来腐蚀我们这些意志薄弱者 还有,也不和你认老乡了。

耳根边说一声:友明,太精彩了,谢谢你!

最精彩的是26楼。你看那些土楼前的农村妇女和孩子,简直看不出她们是农村人,很好看的。
我知道你是老乡,我们是闽南的老乡,也是伊甸的老乡。。

youming  [评] 2008-12-26 07:52



引用:
Originally posted by youming at 2008-12-26 12:52 PM:


最精彩的是26楼。你看那些土楼前的农村妇女和孩子,简直看不出她们是农村人,很好看的。
我知道你是老乡,我们是闽南的老乡,也是伊甸的老乡。。

都很喜欢很精彩。 本来想点出几幅的,才发现都那么好。26上的女人们,我能看得出她们是农村妇女,尽管她们穿着时髦了许多,但是她们看上去还是很纯朴的。

问候老乡,新年快乐!

虔谦  [评] 2008-12-26 14:03

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